Adaptation of an ELISA assay for detection of IgG 2a responses against therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in a mouse immunization model

February 15, 2022 0 Comments

Biotherapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) play important roles in clinical medicine but their potential to elicit immune responses in patients remains a major issue. In a study designed to investigate the effect of aggregation on immunogenic responses, mice were immunized with two monoclonal antibodies (mAb1 and mAb2). Serum levels of total IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a were measured by ELISA. An anti-mouse IgG2a monoclonal detection antibody cross-reacted with mAb2 but not mAb1, leading to high background when the ELISA plate was coated with mAb2.

The problem was solved by use of a goat anti-mouse IgG2a polyclonal antibody that demonstrated the required specificity. IgG2a responses were similar for monomer- or aggregate-coated ELISA plates. The results demonstrate the importance of assessment of the specificity of individual reagents when measuring antibody responses against therapeutic antibodies by ELISA.

Regression of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in a Patient-Derived Xenograft Mouse Model by Monoclonal Antibodies against IL-12 p40 Monomer

Although some therapies are available for regular breast cancers, there are very few options for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we demonstrated that serum level of IL-12p40 monomer (p40) was much higher in breast cancer patients than healthy controls. On the other hand, levels of IL-12, IL-23 and p40 homodimer (p402) were lower in serum of breast cancer patients as compared to healthy controls. Similarly, human TNBC cells produced greater level of p40 than p402. The level of p40 was also larger than p402 in serum of a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse model.
Accordingly, neutralization of p40 by p40 mAb induced death of human TNBC cells and tumor shrinkage in PDX mice. While investigating the mechanism, we found that neutralization of p40 led to upregulation of human CD4+IFNγ+ and CD8+IFNγ+ T cell populations, thereby increasing the level of human IFNγ and decreasing the level of human IL-10 in PDX mice. Finally, we demonstrated the infiltration of human cytotoxic T cells, switching of tumor-associated macrophage M2 (TAM2) to TAM1 and suppression of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) in tumor tissues of p40 mAb-treated PDX mice. Our studies identify a possible new immunotherapy for TNBC in which p40 mAb inhibits tumor growth in PDX mice.

Generation, Characterization and Protective Ability of Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies Against the HA of A (H1N1) Influenza Virus

Influenza virus infections pose a continuous threat to human health. Although vaccines function as a preventive and protective tool, they may not be effective due to antigen drift or an inaccurate prediction of epidemic strains. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have attracted wide attention as a promising therapeutic method for influenza virus infections. In this study, three hemagglutinin (HA)-specific mAbs, named 2A1, 2H4 and 2G2 respectively, were derived from mice immunized with the HA protein from A/Michigan/45/2015(H1N1). The isolated mAbs all displayed hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) activity, and the 2G2 mAb exhibited the strongest neutralization effect.
Two amino acid mutations (A198E and G173E), recognized in the process of selection of monoclonal antibody resistant mutants, were located in antigenic site Sb and Ca1 respectively. In prophylactic experiments, all three mAbs could achieve 100% protection in mice infected with a lethal dose of A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1). A dose of 1 mg/kg for 2H4 and 2G2 was sufficient to achieve a full protective effect. Therapeutic experiments showed that all three mAbs could protect mice from death if they received the mAb administration at 6 hours post-infection, and 2G2 was still protective after 24 hours. Our findings indicate that these three mAbs may have potential prevention and treatment value in an H1N1 epidemic, as well as in the study of antigen epitope recognition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Production and application of mouse monoclonal antibodies targeting linear epitopes in pB602L of African swine fever virus

African swine fever (ASF) is an acute hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs. The causative agent of ASF, ASF virus (ASFV), is a double-stranded DNA virus, the sole member in the family Asfarviridae. The non-structural protein pB602L of ASFV is a molecular chaperone of the major capsid protein p72 and plays a key role in icosahedral capsid assembly. This protein is antigenic and is a target for developing diagnostic tools for ASF. To generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against pB602L, a prokaryotically expressed recombinant pB602L protein was produced, purified, and used as an antigen to immunize mice.
  • A total of eight mouse mAbs were obtained, and their binding epitopes were screened by Western blot using an overlapping set of polypeptides from pB602L. Three linear epitopes were identified and designated epitope 1 (366ANRERYNY373), epitope 2 (415GPDAPGLSI423), and epitope 3 (498EMLNVPDD505).
  • Based on the epitope recognized, the eight mAbs were placed into three groups: group 1 (B2A1, B2F1, and B2D10), group 2 (B2H10, B2B2, B2D8, and B2A3), and group 3 (B2E12).
  • The mAbs B2A1, B2H10, and B2E12, each representing one of the groups, were used to detect pB602L in ASFV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and pig tissues, using an indirect fluorescence assay (IFA) and immunohistochemical staining, respectively.
  • The results showed that pB602L was detectable with all three mAbs in immunohistochemical staining, but only B2H10 was suitable for detecting the proteins in ASFV-infected PAMs by IFA.
  • In summary, we developed eight anti-pB602L mouse mAbs recognizing three linear epitopes in the protein, which can be used as reagents for basic and applied research on ASFV.

Anti-IAPP Monoclonal Antibody Improves Clinical Symptoms in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic progressive disease, defined by insulin resistance and insufficient insulin secretion to maintain normoglycemia. Amyloidogenic aggregates are a hallmark of T2DM patients; they are cytotoxic for the insulin producing β-cells, and cause inflammasome-dependent secretion of IL-1β. To avoid the associated β-cell loss and inflammation in advanced stage T2DM, we developed a novel monoclonal therapy targeting the major component of aggregates, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP).
The here described monoclonal antibody (mAb) m81, specific for oligomeric and fibrils, but not for soluble free IAPP, is able to prevent oligomer growth and aggregate formation in vitro, and blocks islet inflammation and disease progression in vivo. Collectively, our data show that blocking fibril formation and prevention of new amyloidogenic aggregates by monoclonal antibody therapy may be a potential therapy for T2DM.

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