Effect of COVID-19 on Anti-S Antibody Response in Healthcare Workers Six Months Post-Vaccination

February 15, 2022 0 Comments

The current study aimed to determine to what extent prior COVID-19 infection affects the response of specific antibodies following vaccination. The study involved 173 healthcare professionals who completed the two-dose vaccination course with BNT162b2, including 40 who previously experienced clinical COVID-19. The levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1S2 IgG (anti-S) and, in some cases, anti-SARS-CoV-S-RBD IgG (anti-S-RBD) were determined six months after complete vaccination. A level exceeding the cut-off values for both anti-S and anti-S-RBD was observed in 100% of subjects, but after setting the analysis to 5- and 10-fold cut-off levels, the percentage of subjects meeting this criterion was significantly higher for anti-S-RBD. The 100-fold cut-off level was achieved by only 21% and 16% for anti-S and anti-S-RBD, respectively.
Anti-S and anti-S-RBD levels above ten times the positive cut-off were respectively observed in 91% and 100% individuals with a history of COVID-19, while among those without COVID-19, these values were 64% and 90%, respectively. Significantly higher incidence of values above 10 and 100 times the cut-off became apparent among people with a history of COVID-19. In conclusion, vaccination against COVID-19 following infection with the disease provides higher levels of specific antibodies 6 months after vaccination than those of individuals without a history of the disease, which supports the use of a booster dose, particularly for those who have not experienced SARS-CoV-2 infection.

BNT162b2 Vaccination during Pregnancy Protects Both the Mother and Infant: AntiSARS-CoV-2 S Antibodies Persistently Positive in an Infant at 6 Months of Age

Vaccinations are the most important intervention for controlling the ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. BNT162b2 is an mRNA-based vaccine, which is promising and safe for use during pregnancy, as it could help prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and its complications during pregnancy. Other vaccines, such as influenza and Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis) vaccines, provide significant protection for babies.
Recent studies have shown that COVID-19 antibodies are present in newborns at birth, owing to maternal BNT162b2 vaccination during pregnancy; however, it is currently unclear how long these antibodies could protect infants from SARS-CoV-2 infection and its complications. Herein, we present the case of a preterm baby born at 33 weeks via an emergency cesarean section owing to maternal complications.
The mother had received two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine at 22 and 26 weeks of gestation. Positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies were detected in the infant at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months of age. This is the first case report in which BNT162b2 vaccination during pregnancy yielded a persistent immune response in an infant at 6 months of age. The declining anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody titers noted at 6 months of age emphasize the need for the vaccination of children at this age.

Multi-function PtCo nanozymes/CdS nanocrystals@graphene oxide luminophores and K 2 S 2 O 8/H 2 O 2 coreactants-based dual amplified electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of anti-myeloperoxidase antibody

Anti-myeloperoxidase antibody (anti-MPO) is an important biomarker for anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAVs). However, the complicated operation procedures and insufficient sensitivity of conventional anti-MPO detection methods limit their application in monitoring the efficacy of AAVs in clinical diagnosis. Herein, a dual amplified electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor based on multi-function PtCo nanozymes/CdS nanocrystals@graphene oxide (PtCo/CdS@GO) luminophores and K2S2O8/H2O2 coreactants has been fabricated for ultrasensitive detection of anti-MPO.
Results: PtCo/CdS@GO luminophores as novel signal amplification labels and nanocarriers to load rabbit anti-mouse IgG were synthesized by co-doping with Pt and Co nanozymes simultaneously with several considerable advantages, including astonishing peroxidase-like catalytic activity, high-efficiency luminescence performance and superior stability in aqueous solutions. Meanwhile, upon the K2S2O8/H2O2 coreactants system, benefiting from the efficient peroxidase-like activity of the PtCo/CdS@GO toward H2O2, massive of transient reactive intermediates could react with K2S2O8, thus obtaining higher ECL emission. Therefore, the developed ECL immunosensor for anti-MPO detection displayed good analytical performance with good concentration linearity in the range of 0.02 to 1000 pg/mL and low detection limit down to 7.39 fg/mL.
Conclusions: The introduction of multi-function PtCo/CdS@GO luminophores into the established ECL immunoassay not only was successfully applied for specific detection of anti-MPO in clinical serum samples, but also provided a completely new concept to design other high-performance luminophores. Meaningfully, the ECL immunoassay strategy held the wide potential for biomarkers detection in clinical diagnosis.

Evaluation of AntiSARS-Cov-2 S-RBD IgG Antibodies after COVID-19 mRNA BNT162b2 Vaccine

(1) Background: The evaluation of anti-spike protein receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) antibodies represents a useful tool to estimate the individual protection against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; (2) Methods: We evaluated anti-S-RBD IgG levels by indirect chemiluminescence immunoassay on Maglumi 800 (SNIBE, California) in 2248 vaccinated subjects without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, 91 vaccinated individuals recovered from COVID-19, and 268 individuals recovered from COVID-19 who had not been vaccinated.
Among those who were healthy and vaccinated, 352 subjects performed a re-dosing after about 72 days from the first measurement. (3) Results: Anti S-RBD IgG levels were lower in subjects with previous infection than vaccinated subjects, with or without previous infection (p < 0.001). No difference was observed between vaccinated subjects, with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, anti-RBD IgG levels were higher in females than males (2110 vs. 1341 BAU/mL; p < 0.001) as well as in subjects with symptoms after vaccination than asymptomatic ones (2085 vs. 1332 BAU/mL; p = 0.001) and lower in older than younger subjects. Finally, a significant decrease in anti-RBD IgG levels was observed within a short period from a complete two-dose cycle vaccination. (4) Conclusions: Our results show an efficacy antibody response after vaccination with age-, time- and sex-related differences.

Aptamer BC 007′s Affinity to Specific and Less-Specific Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies

COVID-19 is a pandemic respiratory disease that is caused by the highly infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are essential weapons that a patient with COVID-19 has to combat the disease. When now repurposing a drug, namely an aptamer that interacts with SARS-CoV-2 proteins for COVID-19 treatment (BC 007), which is, however, a neutralizer of pathogenic autoantibodies in its original indication, the possibility of also binding and neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies must be considered. Here, the highly specific virus-neutralizing antibodies have to be distinguished from the ones that also show cross-reactivity to tissues.
The last-mentioned could be the origin of the widely reported SARS-CoV-2-induced autoimmunity, which should also become a target of therapy. We, therefore, used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology to assess the binding of well-characterized publicly accessible anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (CV07-209 and CV07-270) with BC 007.

Rabbit Polyclonal antibody Anti-CRBN

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(S)-Crizotinib

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Demeton S

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Demeton (O and S)

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Human Anti-S. Pneumococcal polysaccharide serotype 5 antiserum

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Rabbit Anti-Human Dopamine Receptor 2 (D2R) (L/S) Ab # 3

D2R13-S Alpha Diagnostics 100 ul 548.4 EUR

Rabbit Anti-Glutathione Transferase, GST (S. japonicum, E. coli) antiserum # 1

GST11-S Alpha Diagnostics 100 ul 548.4 EUR

Polyclonal Goat anti-GST α-form

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Rabbit Anti-Sm28/Smp28/GST28/GST-mu protein (S. Japonicum, 1-211aa) antiserum

SM282-S Alpha Diagnostics 100 ul 548.4 EUR

Anti-S-100A10 Antibody

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Anti-S-100A7L2 Antibody

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Anti-Cathepsin S Antibody

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Anti-Neuromedin-S antibody

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Anti-S-100A3 antibody

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Anti-S-100A5 antibody

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Anti-S-100A7L2 antibody

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Anti-S-100P antibody

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Anti-S-100Z antibody

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Anti-S-Tag antibody

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Anti-S Opsin antibody

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, isothermal calorimetric titration, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were additionally used to test the binding of BC 007 to DNA-binding sequence segments of these antibodies. BC 007 did not bind to the highly specific neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody but did bind to the less specific one. This, however, was a lot less compared to an autoantibody of its original indication (14.2%, range 11.0-21.5%). It was also interesting to see that the less-specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody also showed a high background signal in the ELISA (binding on NeutrAvidin-coated or activated but noncoated plastic plate). These initial experiments suggest that the risk of binding and neutralizing highly specific anti-SARS CoV-2 antibodies by BC 007 should be below.

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