Secondary immunoglobulin responses of BALB/c mice previously stimulated with goat anti-mouse IgD.
Intravenous injection of goat antibodies to mouse IgD (GAMD) into BALB/c mice has been shown to induce vigorous T-cell dependent immunoglobulin responses, particularly of the IgG1 and IgE isotypes. We have confirmed these findings and show that IgA responses are also triggered in this model. Since the study of IgE regulation in allergic individuals is concerned with secondary and subsequent T- and B-cell responses, we boosted GAMD-primed mice with goat antibodies to IgE or IgA in an attempt to specifically retrigger IgE- and IgA-bearing memory B cells. However, we found that secondary IgG1, IgE and IgA production could be elicited equally well by either antibody preparation or by normal goat IgG (GIg). As with the primary response, GIg primed and boosted mice produced very low or undetectable IgG1, IgE and IgA responses.
- These data suggest that GAMD is very efficient at priming T cells specific for GIg epitopes and that once primed they can be readily re-triggered by GIg.
- Spleen cells taken 7 days after boosting GAMD-primed mice were found to spontaneously produce much higher levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in culture than cells from unboosted or GIg primed and boosted mice. In contrast to primary responses, where IgE levels return to the background (less than 40 ng/ml) very quickly, circulating IgE levels in boosted mice initially declined before reaching a plateau level (approximately 1 microgram/ml) which was maintained for at least 148 days. IgG1 and IgA levels continued to fall over this same time period.
- Mice which had been primed (but not boosted) 10 months earlier were all found to have detectable IgE in their blood, despite the fact that following priming IgE becomes undetectable within 2-3 weeks. Since only a part of the IgE response was directed towards the antigen (GIg), these observations suggest the possibility that B cells initially primed to make IgE can be non-specifically retriggered in vivo.
Polyclonal activation of the murine immune system by an antibody to IgD. VI. Influence of doses of goat anti–mouse delta chain and normal goat IgG on B lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation
The injection of mice with 800 micrograms of an affinity-purified goat antibody to mouse IgD (GaM delta) induces early, T-independent polyclonal increases in the expression of B cell surface Ia, and B cell size and DNA synthesis, as well as later, T-dependent polyclonal increases in spleen cell number and Ig secretion. We have now studied the effects of varying the doses of injected GaM delta on all phases of B cell activation, as well as the effects of supplementing GaM delta with varying quantities of normal goat IgG (GIgG). We have found that while 12.5 micrograms of GaM delta modulates most of the IgD from the surface of splenic B lymphocytes, it fails to activate these cells.
Increases in the expression of B cell surface Ia are first seen when 50 micrograms of GaM delta is injected, while increases in B cell DNA synthesis usually require the injection of 200 micrograms of GaM delta and peak with doses of approximately 800 micrograms. Increases in splenic B cell number and DNA synthesis during the T-dependent phase of GaM delta-induced B cell activation are seen only in those mice that were injected with sufficient quantities of GaM delta to induce DNA synthesis during the T-independent phase.
Supplementing the dose of GaM delta injected with additional GIgG has no significant effect on B cell DNA synthesis or B cell number but dramatically increases polyclonal IgG1 secretion. Although mice which have been injected with 50 micrograms of GaM delta or with 800 micrograms of GIgG alone have few polyclonal IgG1-secreting cells, substantial increases in the number of IgG1-secreting cells are seen in mice injected with 50 micrograms of GaM delta plus 750 micrograms of GIgG. GIgG and larger doses of GaM delta similarly act synergistically to increase polyclonal IgG1 secretion.
In contrast to the induction of polyclonal IgG1 secretion, the stimulation of polyclonal IgM secretion requires the injection of mitogenic doses of GaM delta and is not enhanced by the injection of additional GIgG. These observations suggest that, in this model system, stimulatory signals that activate B cells through their surface Ig are limiting for the induction of polyclonal proliferation and IgM secretion, while the generation of T helper lymphokines that do not directly interact with B cells through their surface Ig may be more limiting for the stimulation of polyclonal IgG1 secretion.
Comparison of immunomagnetic beads coated with protein A, protein G, or goat anti–mouse immunoglobulins. Applications in enzyme immunoassays and immunomagnetic separations.
Immunomagnetic beads were prepared using either protein A (PA) or protein G (PG) coupled to magnetic beads for binding antibodies at their Fc region. The performance of these beads was compared with commercially available beads coated with goat anti-mouse (G alpha M) immunoglobulins. Both the PA- and PG-beads possessed a higher binding capacity than the G alpha M-beads for the monoclonal antibodies tested, although, PA bound weakly with some IgG1 antibodies. PA-beads were compared with G alpha M-beads in a magnetic enzyme immunoassay for the detection of mouse immunoglobulins as an alternative to a conventional capture ELISA. The magnetic enzyme immunoassay was characterized by a detection time of less than 60 min and a linear assay range from 5-10 to 500 ng/ml for G alpha M-beads and 5-10 to 1000 ng/ml for PA-beads. The capture ELISA was linear from 10 to 250 ng/ml. For immunomagnetic separation of Salmonella with immunomagnetic beads, PA-beads were superior to both PG- and G alpha M-beads. For specific isolation of bacteria from heterogeneous suspensions by immunomagnetic separation, PA- and PG-beads are preferable since G alpha M-beads crossreact with bacteria possessing proteins with Fc-binding activity.
Optimization of biotin labeling of antibodies using mouse IgG and goat anti–mouse IgG-conjugated fluorescent beads and their application as capture probes on protein chip.
This study shows the optimization of biotin labeling to antibodies using mouse IgG. Several parameters of the biotin labeling, including the molar ratio of biotin to antibody, the coupling time and the dialysis time, were studied to optimum conditions. The biotin-tagged mouse IgGs were immobilized on avidin-coated PMMA (Polymethyl Methacrylate) plates via a biotin-avidin linkage.
The immobilization of the IgG to the chip was quantified using goat anti-mouse IgG bound fluorescent beads. It was found that the binding of the fluorescent beads saturated when a 10-fold or higher molar ratio of biotin to antibody was used. In biotin coupling time tests, sixty minutes was sufficient for the capture probes to bind to the surface.
However, the results from the dialysis experiments showed no difference, indicating that 2 hours was sufficient to remove any unbound biotin. Finally, to prove the universality of this protocol using mouse antibodies, the optimum conditions were successfully applied in sandwich immunoassays designed to detect troponin I (TnI) and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP).